How to Perform the Salah

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Making the Intention

Allah says in the Qur’an translated as,,

“They were not ordered but to worship Allah(SWT), making their submission exclusive for him with integrity.” (Qur’an 98:5)

Umar ibn Al-Khattab has narrated that the messenger of Allah(S.A.W.) said, “Deeds are determined according to the intentions”. (Sahih Bukhari 1/2)

Facing the Qiblah

At the time of standing towards Qiblah, the face must be directed towards Ka’bah.

Allah says in the Qur’an translated as,

“And, wherever you be, turn your faces in its direction. ” (Qur’an 2:144)

Abu Hurairah has narrated that the messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) said, “Whenever you stand to offer salaah, make wudhu properly and then face the Qiblah. ‘ (Sahih Buhari 2/286)

Qiyaam (Standing)

Allah says, “And stand before Allah in total devotion.” (Qur’an 2:238)

Imran ibn Husain has said, “I asked the messenger of  Allah(S.A.W.) about salaah. He (S.A.W.) told me to offer it while standing.” (Sahih Bukhari 1/150)

Saying the Takbir-e-Tahrimah

TekbirThe prayer begins with the opening takbîr by saying Allaahu-Akbar.

Allah says, “and pronounces the name of his Lord, then offers salaah” (Qur’an 87:15)

Ali (R.A.) has narrated that the messenger of Allah(S.A.W) said,  “The key to salaah is tahaarah (cleanliness) and its tehreem (start) is saying Allaahu-Akbar and its tahleel (end) is tasleem (saying the salaam at the end).” (Jami Tirmidhi 1/16; Sunan Abu Dawud 1/98)

Raise your hands, palms facing the qiblah, and recite “Allâhu Akbar.”

According to the Hanafis, men raise their hands up to the ears, with their thumbs on the level of earlobes.

Anas radiallahu anhu says, ‘I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam say the takbeer and place his thumbs close to his ears. He bowed down into ruku’ until each of his joints became motionless, and then descended (into sujûd) with the takbeer. His knees went before his hands’. [Hakim 822 and Baihaqi 2632]

In another narration Anas radiallahu anhu reports, ‘When Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam would say the takbeer he would raise his hands until he brought them in line with his ears and then say Subhânak Âllahumma…[Abu Ya’laa 3735]

Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, ‘I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam raise his thumbs till his earlobes in salâh.’ [Imam Abu Hanifah as quoted in Jam’i al Masaneed 1/412. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah 2410, Ahmad 18370, Abu Dawood 737, Nasai in his al Mujtaba 882]

The same has been narrated by the noble companions Baraa bin Azib radiallahu anhu[Abdul Razzaq 2530, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2411, Ahmad 18199, and Tahawi 1/196.], Malik bin al Huwayrith radiallahu anhu [Ibn Abi Shaibah 2412]

Women raise their hands up to the shoulders, placing them in front of their chest, with the palms facing the qiblah.

Placing your right palm over the back of your left hand, wrist and lower arm

KiyamFollowing the opening takbîr, men should place their hands just below the navel with the right hand holding onto the left one at the wrist.

Women place both hands on the chest, the right hand on top of the left one.

Sahl bin Sa’d radiallahu anhu anhu relates that people were commanded to fasten the right hand over the left in salâh. Abu Hazim (the narrator from Sahl radiallahu anhu ) says, ‘I only know that he (Sahl bin Sa’d radiallahu anhu) is ascribing this directly to rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.'[Malik 378 and Bukhari 707.]

As part of a longer hadeeth Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu also narrates that rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam placed his right hand on the back of his left hand, the wrist and the lower arm.[Ibn Khuzaimah 480 and Baihaqi 2325. Imam Nimawi has classified it saheeh (323).]

Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu reports that he was once praying salâh having placed his left hand on his right. Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam saw him and placed his right hand over his left.[Ibn Majah 811, Abu Dawood 755, Nasai 888 and Baihaqi 2327. Imam Nawawi has declared it saheeh in al Majm’u 3/313.]

Qabeesah bin Hulb narrates from his father, who says: ‘Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would lead us in prayer and would clasp his left hand with his right hand.'[Ibn Abi Shaibah 3934, Ahmad 21467, Ibn Majah 809 and Tirmidhi 252. Imam Tirmidhi adds that it is a hasan hadeeth.]

You should position both hands below the navel.

Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says: ‘I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam placing his right hand over his left in prayer, below the navel.[Ibn Abi Shaibah. Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah says in his takhreej of the ahadeeth of ‘al Ikhtiyaar’ that this hadeeth has a very good sanad. Imam Hashim Sindhi also says in his Dirham al Surrah p84 that its sanad is strong. Imam Nimawi says that its sanad is saheeh (330). Imam Abu Tayyib Madani also says in his commentary of Tirmidhi 1/277 (published by al Matba’ al Nidhami, Kanpur, India, 1299 AH) that this is a hadeeth which is saheeh in both sanad and text and is thus a basis for evidence. Also for details of the lives, learning and works of both Hafidh Qasim bin Qutlubughah and Imam Hashim Sindhi see the biographies.]

Ali radiallahu anhu says, ‘It is part of the sunnah of prayer to place the palm over the palm below the navel.'[Ibn Abi Shaibah 3954, Ahmad 877, Abu Dawood 756, Daruqutni 1089 & 1090, and Baihaqi 2341 & 2342. Also narrated by Abu Hafs bin Shaheen in his al Sunnah and by Adani in his Musnad as mentioned by Allamah Hashim Sindhi in Dirham al Surrah, p32 quoting from Kanz al Ummal. Reported also by Razeen as quoted by the author of Jam’ al Fawaid.]

Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu says, ‘The positioning of the hands upon the hands in prayer is below the navel.'[Abu Dawood 758 and Ibn Battah as quoted by Allamah Hashim Sindhi in Dirham al Surrah, p36.]

Hajjaj bin Hasan said, ‘I heard Abu Mijlaz[38] say or I asked him how should I place my hands.’ He replied, ‘He (the individual performing the prayer) should place the inside of his right palm on his left hand and position both of them below the navel.'[Ibn Abi Shaibah 3942. Ibn at Turkumani says 2/47 that it has been narrated with a very good sanad. Imam Nimawi (331) and Muhaddith Yusuf Binnouri 2/44 both say that its isnad is saheeh. It has also been mentioned by Imam Abu Dawood but without a sanad (757). For details of the lives, learning and works of both Ibn at Turkumani and Muhaddith Yusuf Binnouri see their biographies.]

Ibrahim al Nakhai reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would rest one of his hands on the other in salâh, humbling himself before Allâh. Imam Muhammad (the narrator of this hadeeth) says, ‘He would place the palm of his right hand on his left wrist below the navel. The wrist would thus be in the middle of the palm.’ [Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 120.]

Ibrahim al Nakhai also says, ‘He (the individual performing the prayer) should place his right hand on his left, below the navel.'[Ibn Abi Shaibah 3939 and Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 121. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is hasan (332).]

Imam Tirmidhi says in his Sunan after narrating the above hadeeth of Qabeesah: ‘Fastening the hands in prayer is the practice of the learned Sahâbah, Tabi’ûn and Tab’ Tabieen. They are of the view that the individual performing the prayer should place his right hand on his left. Some of them then say that he should position them above the navel whilst others contend that they should be placed below the navel. All is permissible in their view.'[Tirmidhi 252.]

After placing your hands in the appropriate place, recite Subhânaka (or any other supplication which the Prophet used to recite in his prayers.)

Abu Saeed al-Khudri has narrated that whenever the messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) started his salaah; he would recite
“Subhaanak-Allahum-ma wa bihamdika wa tabaarakasmuka wa ta ‘aalaajadduka wa laa ilaaha ghairuk. ” (96)

Abdah has narrated that Umar ibn Al-Khattaab used to recite these words in an audible voice – Subhaanak Allaahumma…till the end. (This was most likely for the purpose of teaching others in that part of Salaah).

Aswad reports that when Sayyiduna Umar bin al Khattab radiallahu anhu would begin salâh he would say Subhânak  Allâhumma…’.[49]

It is also narrated as being the practice of Sayyiduna Uthman,[50] Sayyiduna Abu Bakr[51] and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud [52] radiallahu anhum

Following this opening supplication, recite A‘ûdhu-Basmala with an inaudible voice (only you can hear) and then Sûrah al-Fâtihah . Say “Âmîn” quietly or loudly when reciting Sûrah al-Fâtihah. Then recite another sûrah or passage from the Qur’ân (at least three short ones or one equally long verse of the Qur’ân).

The ta’awwudh (only in the beginning of a salah);

Taawwudh-page-0

Allâh says in the Holy Qur’ân:

Thus when you recite the Qur’ân, seek the protection of Allâh from the accursed Shaitan.[ al Nahl 16/98.]

Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu reports that before reciting Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would pray awoozu billahi… [Abdul Razzaq 2589]

Aswad says, ‘Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhu started salâh, said the takbeer and then recited:[ Ibn Abi Shaibah 2455.]

Subhanakallahumma…. And awoozubillahi…….

Abu Wail reports that they (the companions) would say the ta’awwudh and basmalah silently in salâh. [Saeed bin Mansoor as quoted by Imam Nimawi 340. He adds that its isnad is saheeh]

Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik radiallahu anhu says, ‘I prayed salâh behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman radiallahu anhum and I did not hear one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem loudly.[57]

The son of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu narrates, ‘My father heard me reading Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem in salâh. He said, “Oh my son. An innovator are you? Beware of innovation.” (The son of Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu, adds, “I have not seen anyone amongst Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam’s companions to whom innovation was more repulsive than my father.”) His father said, “I have prayed with Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and ‘Uthmân radiallahu anhum, and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem, therefore do not recite it. When you pray salâh read al Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen.'[Ahmad 16345, Ibn Majah 815, Tirmidhi 244 and Tahawi 1/202. Imam Tirmidhi says that it is hasan]

And basmalah (each rakah before only Fatihah);

Sayyiduna Anas bin Malik radiallahu anhu says, ‘I prayed salâh behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman radiallahu anhum and I did not hear one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem loudly.[57]

The son of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu narrates, ‘My father heard me reading Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem in salâh. He said, “Oh my son. An innovator are you? Beware of innovation.” (The son of Abdullah bin Mughaffal radiallahu anhu, adds, “I have not seen anyone amongst Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam’s companions to whom innovation was more repulsive than my father.”) His father said, “I have prayed with Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, Abu Bakr, Umar and ‘Uthmân radiallahu anhum, and I did not hear any one of them recite Bismillah al Rahman al Raheem, therefore do not recite it. When you pray salâh read al Hamdu Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen.'[Ahmad 16345, Ibn Majah 815, Tirmidhi 244 and Tahawi 1/202. Imam Tirmidhi says that it is hasan]

Recite Fatihah;

Al fatihah3

Sayyiduna Ubadah bin Samit radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘There is no salâh for one who does not recite ‘the opening chapter of the book’.'[Bukhari 723 and Muslim 394.]

Wahb bin Kaysan reports that he heard Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu say, ‘He who prays one rak’ah in which he does not recite Sûrah al Fatihah has in fact not prayed at all, unless he is behind an Imam.'[Malik 188 and Tirmidhi 313. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh.]

Jabir ibn Abdullah has narrated that a man recited behind the prophet in Dhuhr or ‘Aw salaah, so another man gestured towards him to try to prevent him from reciting, but the man did not stop. When he finished his salaah, he said to the man who was trying to stop him – “Are you preventing me from reciting behind the prophet?” We discussed this issue until the prophet heard it, so he(S.A.W.) said, “Whoever offers salaah behind the imaam, the recitation of the imaam is the recitation for the muqladi.” (Kitab Al-Aathaar li Abi Hanifah. Riwaayat Abi Yusuf; p 23-24)

The recitation of the Imam is the recitation of the Muqtadi

Jabir has narrated that the messenger of Allah said. “Whoever offers salaah behind the imam, the recitation of the imaam is the recitation for the muqtadi.(Ittihaf Al-Khayaraat Al-Maharah li Al-Buseeri; 2/216 No. 1832)
Whenever Abdullah ibn ‘Umar* was asked, if someone is behind the imaam, should he recite? He would answer, “When a person is offering salaah behind the imaam. then the imaam ‘s recitation is sufficient for him. And if he is offering salaah alone [by himself], then he should recite.”
Abdullah ibn “Umar himself would not recite behind the imaam.’ (Muvvatta Imaam Maalik; p 68 | Musannaf Abdur Razzaaq: 2/91 No. 2817 and 2818 | Shar Ma’aani Al-Aathaar; 1/160)

Imam, Muqtadi, and Munfarid’s saying Aameen in an inaudible voice

Waa”il ibn Hujr has narrated that he offered salaah with the messenger of Allah When he recited ghairil maghdubi alaihim walad-daal-leen, he also said Aameen in a low voice.” (Musnad Abu Dawud Al-Tayalisi; 1/577 No. 1117 | Musnad Ahmad:
14/285 No. 18756 | Al-M’ujam Al-Kabir li Al-Tabaraani; 9/138 No. 17472)

Ibrahim al Nakhai says, ‘There are five things which the Imam says silently: “Subhânak Allâhumma…”, ta’awwudh, basmalah, Ameen, and “Allâhumma Rabbana wa lakal Hamd”.'[Imam Muhammad in his Kitab al Aathaar 83 (mentioning four instead of five); Abdul Razzaq 2597, and Ibn Abi Shaibah 8849. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (386). Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are authentic (724).]

Abu Wail reports that Sayyiduna Ali and Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu, would not say the basmalah, ta’awwudh or Ameen loudly.[ Tabarani in al Mu’jam al Kabeer as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/108. Hafidh Haithami says that the sanad contains Abu Sa’d al Baqqal who is authentic and a mudallis. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani classifies it as saheeh 2/250.]

Abu Wail says that Sayyiduna Umar and Sayyiduna Ali radiallahu anhu would not say the basmalah, ta’awwudh or Ameen loudly.[ Ibn Jareer al Tabari in Tahdheeb al Aathaar as quoted by Ibn al Turkumani 2/70. Also reported by Tahawi 1/204. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says that its narrators are those of the six books of hadeeth except for Abu Sa’d al Baqqal who is authentic and a mudallis.]

Ibn Jareer al Tabari says as quoted by Ibn al Turkurnam[Ibn al Turkumani 2/85] that this was the practice of most of the Sahâbah radiallahu anhum and Tabi’ûn.

Recite at least a few verses from The Qur’an;

Sayyiduna Ubadah bin al Samit radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘There is no salâh for one who does not recite the mother (essential chapter al Fatihah) of the book and more.”[ Muslim 394, Abu Dawood 822 and Ibn Hibban 1783.]

Sayyiduna Abu Saeed al Khudri radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallhu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘The key to salâh is purity, its consecration is takbeer, and its deconsecrating act is the salam. And there is no salâh for one who does not recite ‘Alhamdu lillâh…'(the opening chapter of the book) and a Sûrah in an obligatory or other (prayer).'[Tirmidhi 238. He adds that it is hasan.]

If you are praying in a congregation then you should not recite anything behind the Imam.

Allâh says: And when the Qur’ân is recited, listen to it attentively and remain silent, that you may receive mercy.[Al A’raaf 7/204.]

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu says, ‘Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam turned around after a salâh in which he had recited loudly. He enquired, “Has any one of you recited (behind me)?” A man replied, “I did.” Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, “I say: what is it with me? I am being contested for the Qur’ân.” After the people heard this from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam they stopped reciting with him (behind him) in those salâh in which he would pray loudly.'[Malik 194, Ahmad 7760, Ibn Majah 849, Abu Dawood 826, Tirmidhi 312 and Nasai 919. ]

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘The Imam has been appointed so that he may be followed. Thus, when he says the takbeer, you say it also, and when he recites remain silent.'[Ahmad 9151. Also reported by Ahmad bin Manee’ and Abd bin Humaid in their Musnads with a saheeh sanad as quoted by Bouseeree in Misbah al Zujajah Chapter 150, hadeeth 313. Narrated also by Ibn Majah 846, Abu Dawood 603, Nasai 921 & 922 and Tahawi 1/217. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh. Allamah Abdul Hayy Luckhnawi categorically concludes in his Imam al Kalam, p 165 that the hadeeth is authentic after quoting a number of ulama who have declared it saheeh including Imam Ahmad. For details of Allamah Abdul Hayy Luckhnawi’s life, learning and works see the biographies. ]

Sayyiduna Abu Musa al Ash’ari radiallahu anhu says, ‘Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi w sallam taught us that “When you stand up for prayer one of you should lead the rest, and when the Imam recites remain silent.”[Ahmad 19224, Muslim 404 (as part of a longer hadeeth), and Ibn Majah 847]

Abu Wail reports that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu was asked about reciting behind the Imam. He replied, ‘Remain silent for the recitation (of the Imam). For indeed there is a duty in salâh for which the Imam is sufficient for you.'[Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta 120 & 122, Ibn Abi Shaibah 3780, and Tahawi 1/217. Imam Nimawi says 369 that its isnad is saheeh. ]

Nafi’ reports that when Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu would be asked, ‘Should one recite behind the Imam?’ he would reply, ‘When one of you prays behind the Imam then the Imam’s recitation is sufficient for him. When he prays alone he should recite.’ Nafi’ adds, ‘Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu would not recite behind the Imam.'[79]Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu relates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘One who prays behind an Imam, the recitation of the Imam is sufficient for him.'[Imam Abu Hanifah as recorded in the Musnad of Khaskafi p307 and in Jam’i al Masaneed 1/ 334; Imam Muhammad in his al Muwatta 117 and in his Kitab al Hujjah 1/118 with an isnad declared saheeh by Hafidh Badr al Deen al Aini and Imam Nimawi 364. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah 3802 with an isnad classified saheeh by Ibn at Turkumani 2/228; Ahmad 14233; Abd bin Humaid 1050; Ahmad bin Manee’ with a saheeh isnad as quoted by Imam Nimawi 364; Ibn Majah 850; Tahawi 1/217 with an isnad declared saheeh by Hafidh Ibn al Humam as mentioned in the footnotes of Sharh Maani al Athaar 1/217; and Baihaqi 2897. ]

The above hadeeth has also been reported from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam on the authority of the noble Sahâbah Anas,[Ibn Hibban in his al Dhuafaa 2/202. ] Abdullah bin Abbas,[Daruqutni 1238 & 1252. ] Abu Hurairah,[Daruqutni 1229 & 1230. ] Abu Saeed al Khudri,[Tabarani in al Mu’jam al Awsat as quoted by Hafidh Haithami 2/111. Hafidh Haithami says that the sanad contains Haroon al Abdi who is matrook. ] Abdullah bin Umar,[Daruqutni 1225. ] Ali,[Daruqutni 1234. ] and Abu al Dardaa [Daruqutni 1248. ]radiallahu anhum.

Ahadeeth such as those above stressing the obligation of Sûrah al Fâtihah are for the Imam or the individual, not the muqtadi. Imam Tirmidhi has quoted Imam Ahmad who commented on the above hadeeth (There is no salâh for one…) by saying ‘This is if he is alone.’

Wahb bin Kaysan reports that he heard Sayyiduna Jabir bin Abdullah radiallahu anhu say, ‘He who prays one rak’ah in which he does not recite Sûrah al Fâtihah has in fact not prayed at all, unless he is behind an Imam.'[Malik 188 and Tirmidhi 313. ]

ruku

Then bow down saying “Allâhu Akbar.” Recite “Subhâna Rabbiyal ‘Azîm” at least three times in the bowing position (rukû‘).

Performing Ruku’ (bowing)

Allâh says in the Holy Qur’ân:
Oh you who believe! Bow down and prostrate, and worship your Lord.[112]

Abu Hurairah has narrated that the prophet(S.A.W.) while teaching someone how to offer salaah said, “When you stand for salaah, then say Takbir, then recite from the Qur’an whatever is easy for you, then bow down [perform ruku ‘] calmly.”[Sahih Bukhari; 1/109 | Sahih Muslim; 1/170]

Anas has narrated that the messenger of Allah at said to him. “O my son! When you perform ruku’, then place both of your palms on your knees and spread out your fingers,
and keep your arms separated from your sides.”(Al-Mujam Al-Awsat li Al-Tabaraani; 4/281 No. 5991 | Al-Mu jam Al-Avvsat li Al-Tabaraani; 2/32)

Hudhaifah has narrated that he offered salaah with the prophet He would say subhaana rab-biyal ‘azeem in his ruku’, and  subhaana rab-biyal ‘aala in his sajdah.(Sunan Abu Dawud; 1/134 | Jami’ Tirmidhi; 1/61)

Abdullah ibn Mas’ud has narrated that the prophet said, “When any of you goes into ruku’ and says subhana rabbiyal azeem three times in his ruku’, has completed his ruku’. and this is the minimum.” (Jami’ Tirmidhi; 1/60 | Sahib Bukhari; 1/109)

Say “Sami‘allâhu liman hamidah” while rising from the bowing position, and “Rabbanâ lakal-hamd” when fully upright (i.e. after reaching the standing position).

Munfarid’s saying both the tasmi and tahmeed

Abu Hurairah has narrated that when the messenger of Allah would stand for salaah, he would say takbir while in qiyaam (standing). Then when he would go into ruku ‘, he would say takbir. When he would rise from ruku’, he would say “sami-‘Allahu liman hamidah.”(tasmi) Then he would say “rabbanaa lakal hamd’ (Tahmeed) while standing.” (Sahih Bukhari; 1/109)

Qawmah (standing after ruku)

Abu Hurairah has narrated that the prophet said to a man while teaching him how to offer salaah, “Then make ruku’ calmly, then raise your head (rise from ruku’) until youstand calmly. (Sahih Bukhari; 1/109 | Sahih Muslim; 1/170)

Method of Qawmah

Abu Humaid al-Saa’di has narrated that the prophet raised his head from ruku’ and stood until all of his limbscame to their positions.(Sahih Bukhari; 1/110)

‘Aaisha has narrated regarding the salaah of the prophet “When he would raise his head from ruku, he would not go into sajdah until he would stand up straight.”(Sahih Muslim; 1/194)

Du’aa of Qawmah

Rifaa’ah ibn Raafi’ al-Zuraqi has narrated, “One day we offered salaah behind the prophet When he raised his head from ruku ‘, he said sami ‘Alalahu liman hamidah. So a person behind him said “rabbanaa wa lakal hamdu hamdan kathiran tayyiban mubaarakan feeh. “

Then say “Allâhu Akbar” while going into prostration. Recite “Subhâna Rabbiyal-A’lâ” at least three times while in the prostration position.

When this recitation is finished, repeat the takbeer…

Abu Salâmah relates that Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu would lead them in salâh, and pronounce the takbeer whenever he rose or fell (into ruku’ or prostration). Having completed the salâh he would turn around and say, ‘Amongst you my salâh is the closest to that of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam.'[Malik 168, Bukhari 752 and Muslim 392. ]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu says, ‘Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would say the takbeer at the time of each rising, descent, standing, and sitting, and so would Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman radiallahu anhum[Ahmad 3652, Darimi 1249, Tirmidhi 235 and Nasai 1149. Imam Tirmidhi says that it is a hasan saheeh hadeeth. ]

and, without raising your hands,…

Alqamah reports that Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu said, ‘Should I not lead you in salâh in the manner of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ?’ He then prayed and did not raise his hands except in the beginning. [ Imam Abu Hanifah as recorded in Jam’i al Masaneed 1/355. Also reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah in his al Musannaf 2441 as well as his Musnad 323; Ahmad 3672, Abu Dawood 748, Tirmidhi 257; Nasai in al Mujtaba 1058 and also in al Sunan al Kubra 645 & 1099; Abu Ya’laa 5040 & 5302, and Baihaqi 2531. Ibn Hazam 2/ 264, Ibn al Turkumani 2/113 and Imam Nimawi 402 have all declared the hadeeth saheeh. ]

The above hadeeth has also been reported by Imam Nasai with the following wording: ‘Should I not inform you of the salâh of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam?’ He then stood up and raised his hands once in the beginning. He did not raise them again. [Nasai 1026. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani says 814 that its narrators are those of both Bukhari and Muslim except Suwaid who is thiqah (authentic) and Aasim who is a thiqah narrator of Muslim. ]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would raise his hands at the time of the first takbeer and not raise them again. [Tahawi 1/224 with two different isnads. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani has discussed each narrator of both these sanads and proven that they are all authentic 3/71.]

Sayyiduna Baraa bin Azib radiallahu anhu relates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would begin salâh he would raise his hands close to his ears and then not raise them again. [Abdul Razzaq 2531, Ibn Abi Shaibah 2440, Abu Dawood 749; and Abu Ya’laa 1689, 1690, 1691 & 1692; and Tahawi 1/224. Allamah Anwar Shah al Kashmiri says as quoted by Muhaddith Yusuf al Binnouri 2/493, ‘In short, this discussion of the topic from the angle of both hadeeth and historical data concludes that it is correct to use the hadeeth of Baraa (bin Azib) as evidence with the authentic additional wording (of “he would not raise them again”)’. ]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would raise his hands when beginning salâh and then not raise them again. [Baihaqi in al Khilafiyyat as quoted by Hafidh Zailaee 1720. Muhaddith Yusuf al Binnouri 2/ 498 quotes Qadhi Abid Sindhi who says in al Mawahib al Lateefah, ‘In my view this hadeeth is undoubtedly saheeh.’ He also quotes 2/496 Allamah Anwar Shah al Kashmiri as saying, ‘The sanad mentioned in the takhreej (Nasb al Ra’yah by Hafidh Zailaee) is saheeh.’ For details of the lives, learning and works of both Hafidh Zailaee and Qadhi Abi Sindhi see the biographies. ]

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Allow your knees to first touch the ground followed by the hands.

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu says, ‘I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam place his knees (on the ground) before his hands when he would prostrate, and lift up his hands before his knees when rising.'[Darimi 1320, Ibn Majah 882, Abu Dawood 838, Tirmidhi 268, Nasai 1089, Ibn Khuzaimah 626, and Tahawi 1/255. Also reported by Ibn al Sakan in his Saheeh as quoted by Hafidh bin Hajar in al Talkhees al Habeer 1/254 no. 379. Narrated also by Ibn Hibban 1909, Hakim 822, Baihaqi 2628 and Baghawi 3/133 no 642. Imam Tirmidhi says that the hadeeth is hasan ghareeb and Hakim has declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed. This hadeeth has also been narrated with other chains. ]

This hadeeth is supported by the following narrations:

Sayyiduna Anas radiallahu anhu says, ‘I saw Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam say the takbeer and place his thumbs close to his ears. He bowed down into ruku’ until each of his joints became motionless, and then descended (into sujûd) with the takbeer. His knees went before his hands.'[Hakim 822 and Baihaqi 2632. Hakim classified it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed with him. Hafidh Ibn al Humam quotes Ibn al Jawzi in Fath al Qadeer 1/287 as saying that all of its narrators are authentic ]

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘When one of you falls down into sajdah he should begin with his knees before his hands and he should not descend in the manner of a camel.'[Ibn Abi Shaibah 2702, Abu Ya’laa 11/414 no 6540, Tahawi 1/255 and Baihaqi 2635.]

Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah radiallahu anhu reports that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘When one of you falls down into sajdah does he do so in the manner of a camel?'[Abu Dawood 841, Nasai 1090 and Baihaqi 2636. ]

Sayyiduna Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas radiallahu anhu says, ‘We used to place our hands before our knees, then we were instructed to place our knees before our hands.'[Ibn Khuzaimah 828 and Baihaqi 2637. Hafidh Ibn Hajar says in Fath al Bari that two of its narrators are weak. ]

Kulaib narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate his knees would fall to the ground before his hands.[Baihaqi 2630. This hadeeth is mursal.]

(Allow your) nose (to touch the ground) and finally the forehead which should be positioned between the two palms laid flat on the ground towards the qiblah.

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu also says, ‘I observed Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam (praying salâh), and when he prostrated he placed his hands close to his ears.'[Abdul Razzaq 2948, Tahawi 1/257 and Baihaqi 2692. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (438).]

Abu Ishaq says, ‘I asked Baraa bin Azib “Where did Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam place his face when prostrating?” He replied, “Between his palms.”‘[Tirmidhi 271. He adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh ghareeb.]

Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr radiallahu anhu reports that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would prostrate he would do so between his palms.[Ahmad 18365.]

Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam said, ‘I have been instructed to prostrate on seven bones: on the forehead, and he also pointed to his nose; on the hands, on the knees, and on the balls of the two feet. And (I have also been instructed that) we do not gather our clothes and hair.'[Bukhari 779 and Muslim 490.]

Again as part of a longer hadeeth Sayyiduna Abu Humaid al Saidee radiallahu anhu reports that when prostrating he (Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam ) would place his hands without spreading them out or bringing them too close (to himself), and point his toes towards the qiblah [Bukhari 794.]

Abdullah ibn Mas”ud has reported that the prophet said, “Whenever any of you performs sajdah, he should say Subhaana rabhi-yal a’laa three times and his sajdah will be complete. And this is the least amount.[Jami’ Tirmidhi; 1/60 | Sunan Ibn Maajah; 1/63]

Then say “Allâhu Akbar” when rising from the prostration and sit upright for a moment with your knees bent and palms resting on them.

Jalsah (sitting) between the two sajdahs

Abu Hurairah has narrated that the prophet said to a man while teaching him how to perform salaah, “Then perform sajdah calmly, then raise your head from sajdah and sit calmly.”

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar radiallahu anhu says, ‘It is the sunnah of salâh to raise the right foot and face it towards the qiblah with its toes, and to sit on the left foot.’ [1157 & 1158. Imam Nimawi says that its isnad is saheeh (458).]

You should sit with both your legs tucked in beneath you, the left foot spread out with the toes in the direction of the right foot which itself should be upright with the toes facing the qiblah. Both hands should be rested upon the thighs with the fingers facing the qiblah. This sitting posture is to be adopted throughout the salâh. There is no difference in the manner of sitting for the second and last rak’ah or for the sitting between the two prostrations. Women should take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot.

Prostrate again saying “Allâhu Akbar” and recite “Subhâna Rabbiyal- A’lâ” at least three times while in the prostration position.

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Then stand up from the prostration position saying “Allâhu Akbar.” This completes one rak‘ah, or unit, of the prayer. The second rak‘ah, or unit, of the prayer is performed in the same manner as the first rak‘ah above, except that you only recite “Bismillâhir- Rahmânir-Rahîm” without reciting the opening prayer of Subhânaka(Thana) and istiaadhah, nor should you raise your hands with any takbeer as you did in the beginning of the salâh. Following the prostrations of the second rak‘ah (unit) of the prayer,You should, however, recite basmalah before Sûrah al Fâtihah at the beginning of each rak’ah. 

When you have completed your second prostration of the second rak’ah, do not stand up but remain seated and recite the prayers of at-tahiyyât, Salât alan Nabî (i.e., Allâhumma Salli and Allâhumma Bârik) as well as Rabbâna Âtinâ and Rabbanâghfirlî while in the sitting position. 

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin al Zubair radiallahu anhu narrates that when Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam sat praying (tashahhud) he would place his right hand upon his right thigh and his left hand upon his left thigh. He would point with his forefinger and place his thumb upon his middle finger, whilst his left hand would be grasping his knee.[ Muslim 579 and Abu Dawood 988]And in the narration of Nasai, Abu Dawood and Ahmad, ‘His gaze would not pass beyond his pointing.'[Ahmad 15668, Abu Dawood 990 and Nasai 1275.]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu relates, ‘When we prayed behind Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, we would say, “Peace (as-Salâm) be upon Allâh.” Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, turned to us and said, “Indeed Allâh is the one who is as-Sâlam so you should say:[Bukhari 6946, Muslim 402. ] Athahiayatu lillahi wassalawaatu…

Imam Tirmidhi says, ‘The hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ud radiallahu anhu has been narrated from him in more than one way. It is the most authentic hadeeth from Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam regarding tashahhud, and it is the basis of the practice of most of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam’s companions and the Tabi’un after them’

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu also reports that it is sunnah to read the tashahhud silently.[Abu Dawood 986, Tirmidhi 291, Ibn Khuzaimah 706 and Hakim 838. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.]

The index finger should only be raised once during the tashahhud at the time mentioned. It should not be raised at any other point nor should it be constantly moved.

Sayyiduna Abdullah Ibn al Zubair radiallahu anhu narrates that Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam would point with his finger when he prayed and he would not move it.[Abu Dawood 989, Nasai 1270, Abu Awanah 2/226 (Dar al Ma’rifah edition, Beirut.), Baihaqi 2786 and Baghawi 676. Imam Nawawi has declared it saheeh in his al Majmu’ 3/454 ]

The chosen opinion according to majority of the Hanafi scholars is that the hands should be kept on the thighs (during Qa’dah). At the time of the words showing Tawhid, the little and ring finger (of the right hand) should be folded inwards, a circle should be formed with the middle finger and thumb. Pointing should be done with the index finger; it must be lifted when negating everything (when saying ‘Lâ ilâha’) and should be dropped when establishing the oneness of Allah (after saying ‘ill Allah’).

After completing the second prostration of the final rak’ah you should again adopt the sitting posture and recite the tashahhud as before, followed by prayer and salutations upon Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam as follows.

Abdul Rahman bin Abu Layla says, ‘K’ab bin Ujrah radiallahu anhu met me and said, “Should I not give you a gift that I have heard from the Messenger sallallahu alaihi wa sallam?” I replied, “Of course. Give me this gift.” He said, “We questioned Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam saying, “Oh Apostle of Allâh! How should the ‘Salâh’ (prayer) be made upon you, the people of Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam’s household? Indeed Allâh has already shown us how we are to send salutations upon you.” He sallallahu alaihi wa sallam replied, “Say:[Bukhari 3190 and Muslim 406. ] Allahuma salli alaa mohammadin….., Allahumma baarik alaa mohammadin…

selam

Towards the end of a longer hadeeth about tashahhud Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu reports that, ‘If Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam was in the middle of his salâh he would stand up after having completed his tashahhud, and if he was at the end of his salâh he would pray after his tashahhud whatever Allâh wished him to pray and then say the salâm.'[4369 and Ibn Khuzaimah 708. Hafidh Haithami says 2/142 that its narrators are authentic]

Then give salâms (peace greetings), saying “as-salâmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullâh” while turning your head to the right and left (both times). When you give salâms, turn your head first to the right and then the left, with the eyes looking down at the shoulder.

Amir bin Sa’d relates from his father who said ‘I used to see Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wa sallam do the salam to his right and left until I could see the whiteness of his cheek’.[ Muslim 582.]

Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud radiallahu anhu says, ‘Rasulullah sallallahu alaihi wasallam would say the takbeer at the time of each descent, rising, standing and sitting, and he would do salam to his right and left (saying) ‘Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah, Assalamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah’ (turning so much that) the whiteness of his cheek could be seen. I saw Abu Bakr and Umar radiallahu anhum do this also.’ [Nasai 1319. Also narrated by the following without mentioning Sayyiduna Abu Bakr and Sayyiduna Umar radiallahu anhum: Ahmad 3691. Ibn Majah 914. Abu Dawood 996 and Tirmidhi 295. Imam Tirmidhi also adds that the hadeeth is hasan saheeh.]

Muqtadis turning for Salaam at the same time as the Imaam

‘Itbaan ibn Maalik has stated,”We offered salaah with the messenger of Allah When he made salaam,we also made salaam.” [Sahih Bukhari; 1/116]

Ibn Umar used to prefer that the muqtadis make salaam at the same time as the imaam makes salaam. [Sahih Bukhari; 1/116]

This completes the two-Sunnah unit of the morning prayer. After completing the two fard-units of the morning prayer in the same way, then recite the tasbihâtus-salâh as a supplement of prayer in remembrance of God. First recite A‘ûdhu-Basmala and then Âyatul Kursî. Then recite the tasbihât, or words, of glorification (“Subhân Allâh”), of praise (“al-hamdulillah”), and of exaltation (“Allâhu Akbar”), 33 times each. Finally, you make du‘â’s. You can pray to God, ask for forgiveness and mercy from Him, and offer greetings to the Prophet. You can pray in your own language and in your own words to your heart’s content.

 

How to Perform the Fard Units of the Morning Prayer

The fard units are performed in the same manner as the Sunnah units of the morning prayer, the only difference being the intention for prayer. Before beginning the fard units of the morning prayer, the individual must make the intention, “I intend to perform the fard of the morning prayer for the sake of God” in the heart. In addition to this, the iqâmah is also recited before beginning the fard prayer. It is Sunnah for men to recite the iqâmah before performing the fard units of every prayer.

How to Perform the Other Prayers

All of the Sunnah prayers consisting of two units are performed in the same manner as the Sunnah of the morning prayers; the only difference is the intention for prayer. The individual must have the intention of performing that specific prayer. If the Sunnah prayers consist of four units, at-tahiyyât is recited during the first sitting after the first two units of the prayer, and the individual immediately rises to the standing position for the third unit of the prayer. In the third and fourth units of the Sunnah prayers only Basmala is pronounced before the recitation of Al-Fâtihah.

It is to be noted that in the first sitting of the Sunnah units of the afternoon and the first Sunnahs of the night prayer, the supplications Allâhumma salli and Allâhumma bârik are recited after the recitation of at-tahiyyât, and when standing for the third unit of these two prayers, reciting Subhânaka and A‘ûdhu- Basmala is necessary, whereas in the fourth unit of the prayer only Basmala is pronounced before reciting Al-Fâtihah.

After expressing the intention of performing a specific prayer, all of the fard prayers are executed in the same way as the fard units of the morning prayer. After reciting Al-Fâtihah in the third and fourth units of the fard prayers of the noon, afternoon and night prayers and the third unit of the evening prayers no other verses of the Qur’ân are recited.

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