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The obligatory acts consist of staying for some time in ‘Arafat after noon on the eve of ‘Iyd al-Adha (Dhu’l-Hijja 9), and performing the obligatory circumambulation (tawaf) of visiting. Ihram is also essential for Hajj.

The necessary acts for Hajj are as follows:

  • Getting into the state of ihram in any of the miqat places.
  • Doing nothing forbidden while in ihram.
  • Staying in ‘Arafat until sunset on Dhu’l-Hijja 9, the eve of ‘Iyd al-Adha.
  • Staying in Muzdalifa between dawn and sunrise on the ‘Iyd al-Adha for some time. Muzdalifa is located about 20 kilometers from Makka and 10 kilometers from ‘Arafat.
  • Performing the last three turns of the obligatory circumambulation (tawaf al-ifada or ziyara) around the Ka’ba. (The first four turns are obligatory.)
  • Doing the obligatory circumambulation of visiting during the first 3 days of ‘Iyd al-Adha, during which sacrifice is offered.
  • Performing the farewell circumambulation. (This is necessary for pilgrims coming from outside of Makka.)
  • Performing the circumambulation in the state of ritual purity and covering all parts of the body that must be covered.
  • Beginning the circumambulation from a point on line with the Black Stone and with the Ka’ba on one’s left.
  • Offering two rak’ats of prayer after every circumambulation.
  • While performing the circumambulation, turning outside and around Hijr Isma’il, a place to the north of Ka’ba and surrounded by a semicircular wall.
  • Performing sa’y (slightly running seven times between the hills of Safa and Marwa, going from Safa to Marwa four times, and the other way three times).
  • Throwing seven pebbles at each of three stone columns (jamarat) standing in Mina with some distance between them. These are called Jamrat al-Ula, Jamrat al-Wusta, and Jamrat al-‘Aqaba. On the first day of ‘Iyd al-Adha, one throws pebbles at Jamrat al-‘Aqaba, and at all of them on the follow-ing two days.
  • Those coming from outside of Makka and performing Hajj al-Tamattu’ or Hajj al-Qiran should sacrifice a sheep or a goat any time within 3 days af-ter throwing pebbles on the first day of ‘Iyd al-Adha, and shave or cut some of their hair within Makka’s sacred precincts. Women only clip a lit-tle of their hair.

If one of these necessary acts is omitted, a sacrifice must be offered.