ARGUMENTS FOR THE DIVINE AUTHORSHIP OF THE QURAN16

Print Friendly

Even a superficial study of the Qurans wording, styles, and meaning shows that it is unique. Thus, it must be either below or above all other books in rank and worth. Since it is above all of them, it must be the Word of God.

The Quran declares:

You did not (O Messenger) read of any book before it (the revelation of this Quran), nor did you write one with your right (or left) hand. For then, those who have ever sought to disprove the truth might have a reason to doubt (it). (29:48)

• History records that Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was unlettered. Yet the Quran, which he brought, has challenged all people to produce a similar book or even a chapter:

If you are in doubt about the Divine authorship of what We have been sending down on Our servant ( Muhammad), then produce just a sura like it and call for help from all your supporters, all those (to whom you apply for help apart from God), if you are truthful in your doubt and claim. (2:23)

No one has ever met this challenge successfully. Unable to duplicate even its shortest suras (e.g., Surat al-Ikhlas and Surat al-Kawthar), all who have tried have only opened themselves to ridicule. This proves the Quran’s Divine authorship.

• No one has ever written a book having the same degree of accuracy with respect to religion, law, sociology, psychology, eschatology, morality, history, literature, and so on. However, the Quran was revealed in stages and on different occasions in twenty-three years, and it contains at least the principles of all branches of knowledge, either in summary or detail, and none of this knowledge has ever been contradicted. This book of Divine truths, metaphysics, religious beliefs and worship, prayer, law, and morality; a book fully describing the other life; a book of psychology, sociology, epistemology, and history; and a book containing scientific facts and the principles of a happy life contains no contradictions:

Do they not contemplate the Quran (so that they may be convinced that it is from God)? Had it been from any other than God, they would surely have found in it much incoherence and inconsistency. (4:82)

Is it logical to say that a person can write such a book?

• The Qur’an’s styles and eloquence are beyond compare. All of its sentences, words, and letters form a miraculous harmony. With respect to rhythm and music, geometric proportions and mathe-matical measures, and how many times each is used, each is in the exact place it must be and is interwoven and interrelated with others. No other literary masterpiece, including the Hadith,17 can make this claim.

• At the time of the Quran’s revelation, eloquence, poetry, oratory, and soothsaying enjoyed great prestige in the Arabian peninsula. The Arabs held poetry competitions and hung the winning poems, written in gold, on the Ka‘ba wall. Although Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was unlettered and never composed or recited poetry, the Quran challenged all poets and forced them to surrender. Many who refused to believe in the Quran were nevertheless captivated by it. Seeking to prevent Islam’s spread, they said it was something magical (10:76; 21:3; 43:30) and advised people to ignore it (41:26). But such believing poets as Hansa and Labid abandoned poetry out of their respect for and awe at the Quran’s styles and eloquence, and the unbelievers were no longer able to claim it was poetry, rhymed prose, or the words of a soothsayer. Even when they secretly listened to the Prophet’s recitation during the night, they could not overcome their arrogance and believe in its Divine origin.18

The Quran gives news of the past. Although communicated by an unlettered one, the wise Quran mentions in a solemn and powerful manner the important experiences of the greatest of the Prophets from the time of Adam to the Time of Happiness as well as the main aspects of their mission. The information it provides usually coincides with the commonly agreed descriptions of the previous Scriptures. It also corrects the points on which their corrupted forms disagree. Thus, the Quran has an all-seeing vision that knows the past better than the previous Scriptures. While the stories of previous Prophets are mentioned mainly in Makkan suras, no one in Makka knew about them.

The Quran is also full of predictions concerning the near and distant future. Some of these predictions have come true, and others are waiting for the time they will prove to be true. For example, Surat al-Fath contains about ten explicit predictions of the distant future, all of which proved to be true (i.e., see verses 1, 2, 11, 15, 19–21, 27–28). The scholars of the Quran’s inner aspects and the meanings of creation, such as Imam al-Rabbani Ahmad Faruq as-Sarhandi19 found many predictions in Surat ar-Rum and the individual, disjunct letters at the beginning of certain suras concerning the distant future. So, if a person who was subject to the severest criticisms and objections, in whom even one fault was certain to lead to his cause’s failure, makes predictions so unhesitatingly and confidently, and in such a serious manner, it shows without doubt that he speaks not of himself but of what he receives from his Eternal Teacher.

The Quran also speaks about creation and the universe, Divine truths, and the Hereafter’s realities. Its explanations in these areas are among the most important pieces of information about the Unseen. Humanity cannot advance in a straight direction amid paths of misguidance and reach the Unseen’s truths or realities. The deep, endless disagreements between schools of philosophy and scientists show that even their greatest geniuses cannot discover even the least of these truths by unaided reasoning. They can discover the realities of creation only after centuries and endless controversies, and after numerous trials and errors.

No one can discover and perceive the Hereafter’s events, states, conditions, and stages, including the life of the grave, by himself or herself. However, approximately one tenth of the Quran is about the Hereafter, and it is so certain about the information it gives that it uses the past tense while describing its events as if they have already happened.

• Arabic allowed the production of high-level poetry, but its vocabulary was not advanced to the same degree and so it could not express metaphysical ideas or scientific, religious, and philosophical concepts. Restricted to voicing the thoughts and feelings of simple desert people, the Quran so enriched and uplifted Arabic that it eventually became the Islamic world’s lingua franca. At its height, the Islamic world was one of the most brilliant producers of scientific, religious, metaphysical, literary, economic, juridical, social, and political knowledge and texts. How could an unlettered person prepare the ground for such an unparalleled and unique philological revolution?

• Despite its apparent simplicity, the Quran has such depths of meaning that all people, regardless of education or age, can find what they need in it. The Quran illuminates the ways of poets, musicians, orators, sociologists, psychologists, scientists, economists, and jurists. The founders of all true spiritual orders and established schools of legal thought and conduct drew their principles from it. The Quran shows everybody how to solve their problems and satisfies their spiritual quests.

• History shows that the Quran does not bore people. Countless Muslims recite portions of it in their five daily Prayers, and many recite it completely at least once a year, if not once a month or even once a week, and many others memorize it. No text other than the Quran, sacred or non-sacred, has ever been memorized even by one hundredth of those who have memorized the Quran. In addition, a person of average memory can memorize it in a few months. Its frequent recitation brings benefits and an increased desire to continue reciting it. Moreover, it never loses its originality and freshness, for as time passes it breathes new truths and meanings into minds and souls, thus making them more active and lively. Compare this with an ordinary book, which we read maybe two or three times and then place on the shelf, never to look at again.

• The Quran describes humanity’s physical and spiritual aspects and contains principles to solve all socio-economic, juridical, political, and administrative problems regardless of time or place. Furthermore, it simultaneously satisfies the mind and spirit and guarantees happiness in both worlds.

No person, regardless of his or her intelligence, can devise such a system. As we know, such human-devised systems undergo constant revision and adaptation to survive. Even more importantly, none of them can promise and then deliver eternal happiness, for all of their principles are restricted to this transient and short worldly life. By contrast, no Quranic principle has become obsolete or proven defective.

For example, the Quran enjoins that wealth should not circulate only among the rich (59:7); that government offices should be entrusted to qualified persons and that absolute justice should prevail (4:58); that one is entitled only to what he or she has earned (53:39); that no one can be accused of and called to account for another’s crime (6:164); and that whoever kills a person unjustly is as if he or she killed humanity, and whoever saves a life is as if he or she saved the lives of all humankind (5:32). These and many other eternal golden principles (e.g., prohibiting usury, gambling, alcohol, illicit sexual relations, backbiting, wrongdoing), as well as injunctions (e.g., praying, fasting, charity, and good conduct), are another undeniable proof of its Divine authorship. These principles are strengthened through one’s love and consciousness of God, the promise of an eternal happy life, and the fear of Hell’s punishment.

• The Quran unveils the mystery of humanity, creation, and the universe. Humanity, the Quran, and the universe are the three “books” that make the Creator known to us, and therefore three versions or expressions of the same truth. As is known, the post-Renaissance history of the West is full of conflicts between science and religion, but the Quran presents itself, the universe, the subject matter of sciences, and humanity as three versions or expressions of the same truth and therefore never gives rise to a contradiction between science and religion. It clearly shows and proves that the One Who created humanity and the universe is the One Who revealed the Quran.

• Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, followed the Quran, which he conveyed, strictly and designed his life exactly according to it. Thus, Muslim scholars say that the Quran embodies Muhammad in words and that Muhammad embodies the Quran in belief and conduct. In short, they are the two perfect expressions of the same truth. When ‘A’isha was asked about Prophet Muhammad’s conduct, she replied: “Don’t you read the Quran? His conduct is the Qur’an.”20 This shows that both the Quran and Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, are works of God Almighty.

• Authors are influenced by surrounding conditions, regardless of whether they are realists, idealists, or even science-fiction writers. However the Quran, although revealed in parts on certain occasions, is equally universal and objective when dealing with particular issues as it is exact and precise when dealing with universal matters. When describing creation’s beginning or time’s end or humanity’s creation and future life in the other world, it uses precise expressions. Typically, it draws universal conclusions from particular events and moves from universal principles to particular events. Such a unique style, found in no other book, is another sign of its Divine origin.

• Which author can claim that his or her writings are absolutely correct and cannot be contradicted until the Last Day? At a time when science’s conclusions are quickly shown to be incorrect, and when even previous Divine Scriptures still suffer modifications, the Quran’s truths retain their freshness. In the words of Said Nursi, “as time passes, the Quran grows ever younger.” Despite all attempts to find mistakes and contradictions in it, the Quran remains unchanged and displays its uniqueness. Every day it conquers new hearts, and its hidden, unlimited treasures are discovered or bloom like a heavenly rose with countless petals. •

Can anyone, regardless of his or her reputation for truthfulness, speak on behalf of the president, prime minister, all ministers, associations of literary people, lawyers and craftsmen, and a board of university lecturers and scientists? If so, can he or she claim to represent each of them perfectly? If so, can he or she legislate all of the country’s affairs? This is what Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, achieved through the Quran. Could he have done this at the age of forty, having had nothing to do with such things and being unlettered, without Divine inspiration and support?

• Many verses begin with: They ask you and continue with Say (in answer). These were revealed to answer questions asked by Muslims and non-Muslims, especially the Jews of Madina. Topics ranged from what is lawful or unlawful, distributing war spoils, the moon’s phases, Judgment Day, Dhu’l-Qarnayn (an ancient king who made great conquests in Asia and Africa), the spirit, and so on. How can someone without an all-encompassing knowledge answer such questions? But the unlettered Prophet’s answers satisfied everybody. This shows that he was taught by God, the All-Knowing.

• If it is asked why the Quran is not extraordinary and resembles human speech despite being the Word of God, the reply will be as follows:

Our Prophet was a human being. All of his acts and attitudes, except for his miracles and states of Prophethood, originated in his humanity. Like all other human beings, he was subject to and dependent upon God’s creational and operational laws. He suffered from cold, felt pain, and so on. He was not extraordinary in all his acts and attitudes, and set an example to humanity through his conduct. If he had been extraordinary, he could not have been an absolute guide in every aspect of life or a mercy for all through all his states.

In the same way, the Quran leads conscious beings, directs humanity and jinn, guides people of perfection, and instructs truth-seeking people. Thus it must follow the style of human speech and conversation. Humanity and jinn take their supplications and prayers from it, talk about their affairs in its terms, and derive their principles of good conduct from it. In short, every believer adopts it as the authorized reference for all their affairs. If, by contrast, it had been like the Word of God heard by Prophet Moses on Mount Sinai, no one could have borne it or used it as a reference, and it would have been restricted to Prophet Muhammad only.

• Calling the Quran a human work means that a most bright, true, and comprehensive criterion of the human world, miraculous of exposition and bringer of well-being to the world, is the product of an illiterate man. Moreover, his pretence and counterfeiting have appeared as earnestness, sincerity, and purity of intention for fourteen centuries even to great intellects and exalted geniuses. It is a most inconceivable allegation.

 Further, accepting it would mean the following: A most illustrious and virtuous being who spent his entire life displaying and preaching conviction, truthfulness, trustworthiness, sincerity, earnestness, and uprightness in all his states, words, and actions, as well as raising many truthful persons, was—God forbid such a thought! —a mean and discreditable rascal, wholly insincere, and the foremost in unbelief. Even Satan would be ashamed to conceive of such a great lie.

People can imitate only those of nearly the same level. Only those of the same species can take each other’s form. Only those of nearly the same level can aspire to each other’s level. However it is very difficult, even in that case, for them to deceive people for long, as their pretensions and false display eventually unmask them to perceptive people. If, on the other hand, counterfeiters are greatly inferior to those they try to imitate (e.g., an ordinary person claiming Ibn Sina’s knowledge, or an ordinary official pretending to be the president), they would open themselves to ridicule.

Could a firefly make itself appear as a star for a thousand years, or a fly make itself appear as a peacock for a year? Could a private pretend to be a famous marshal and occupy his chair for a long time without giving himself away? Could a deceitful unbeliever sustain for a lifetime, before discerning people, a false display of a most pious person’s loyalty, truthfulness, and conviction? If these “ifs” are inconceivable or unacceptable to any intelligent person, considering the Quran a human work would mean seeing that Manifest Book, which has been like a star of truths or a sun of perfections radiating the lights of truths in the sky of the Muslim world for centuries, as a collection of falsehoods invented by a counterfeiter. It would mean that his Companions of twenty-three years, as well as all who followed him during the next fourteen centuries, were unaware of his real identity. This is beyond belief.

There is no third alternative. If the Quran were a human work, it would be so debased that it could be a source only of superstition. The rank of him who brought it also would be degraded from being a source of perfection to the greatest cheat. Thus, he could not be God’s Messenger, for one who lies in His name is the worst of people. Such a supposition is as inconceivable as imagining a fly to have the qualities of a peacock. No normal person could regard such suppositions as possible.

Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, lived austerely and did not pursue fame, ruler, wealth, beautiful women, or any other worldly gains. Furthermore, he endured severe hardship and persecution. To claim that he wrote the Quran means this man, known among his own people as “the Trustworthy” (al-Amin), was—God forbid!—history’s greatest liar. What could have caused him to falsely claim Prophethood despite the resulting severe deprivation and persecution? Such false claims are no more than the most groundless and extremely degrading accusations.

• The Quran directs the Muslim community, which contains some of history’s greatest and most magnificent people. The Quran has enabled them to conquer this world and the next; has equipped them materially and spiritually; and has instructed and educated them in all rational, moral, and spiritual matters according to their particular level. It has purified them and used each bodily member, sense, and faculty in its most proper place.

The Prophet, who brought the Quran from God, used his life to exemplify His laws in his attitudes and actions. He instructed us via his actions and sincere practice of the principles of truth as long as he lived. He showed and established the ways of true guidance and well-being via his sincere and reasonable sayings. In addition, as his life and good conduct testify, he is the most knowledgeable of God and the most fearful of His punishment. He established his splendid rule of perfection over half the globe and one fifth of humanity. He truly became, through his well-known manners and actions as a Prophet, statesman, commander, spiritual and intellectual guide, father, husband, friend, and so on, the pride of humanity and of creation.

• The Quran is a book of pure truths and matchless value; a guide to God’s beloved friends and scholars of truth and purity. It invites all people, regardless of time or place, as well as those seeking perfection, to truth and love of the truth, truthfulness and loyalty, trustworthiness and reliability. It secures happiness in both worlds through Islam’s pillars of beliefs and fundamental principles. The Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, is a most trustworthy being, the foremost and firmest in belief and conviction. This is testified to by Islam and its law, which he preached and showed by his acknowledged piety and sincere worship manifested throughout his life, as required by his laudable virtues, and confirmed by all people of truth and perfection.

• God’s most beloved Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, faced stiff resistance from Jews and Christians. He had to fight with the Jewish tribes of Madina because of their unending conspiracies and finally expelled them. Despite this, the Quran mentions the Prophets Moses and Jesus, upon them be peace, many times, and Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, only four times by name. Why would one who falsely claims Prophethood mention the Prophets of those who show him great hostility?

• Another argument is that the Quran refers to certain facts of creation only recently established by modern scientific methods. How else could it know such previously unknown things except by Divine authorship? For example, how could it state: Do not the unbelievers realize that the heavens and the earth were one unit of creation before we split them asunder? (21:20); and We created humankind (in the very beginning) from a specially sifted extract of clay. Then We made it into a fertilized ovum in a safe lodging. Then we made the ovum into a leech-like, clinging structure. Then We created of the fertilized ovum a clot clinging (to the womb wall), and (afterwards in sequence) We created of the clinging clot a (chew of) lump, and We created of (a chew of) lump bones, and We clothed the bones in flesh. Then We caused it to grow into another creation. So Blessed and Supreme is God, the Creator Who creates everything in the best and most appropriate form, and has the ultimate rank of creativity. (23:12–4) These are only two of innumerable examples.21

• Even those whose power of hearing allows them to appreciate the Quran’s miraculousness acknowledge that it is not of the same kind and degree as all other books they have heard. Thus it is either inferior or superior to all other books. As not even a devil would assert the former, we must accept that it is superior and therefore a miracle. That being the case, based on the two decisive proofs of dichotomy and reductio ad absurdum, we openly declare:

The Quran is either God’s Word or—God forbid!—the fabrication of an unbeliever who does not recognize or fear God. Even Satan could never say that this second alternative is true. Thus the Quran is, of necessity and undoubtedly, the Word of the Creator of the universe, given that there is no third alternative, as explained above.

Likewise Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, is either a Messenger of God, as well as the most perfect Messenger and superior to all other creatures, or—God forbid!—a man of unbelief and the lowest nature, since he lied against God and neither recognized Him nor His punishment. Not even unbelieving philosophers or hypocrites of the past and the present have alleged—nor will able to allege—such a thing, because no one will heed and accept such an allegation. Instead, even the most corrupt philosophers and unscrupulous hypocrites admit that Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, was a man of exemplary good conduct. So, there are only two alternatives. As with the Quran, the second option is inconceivable and unacceptable. Thus he is self-evidently and of necessity God’s Messenger, the most perfect Messenger, and superior to all other creatures, upon him be blessings and peace to the number of angels, human beings, and jinn.

CONCLUSION

The Quran’s six sides or aspects are luminous and demonstrate its truth. From below, it rests upon the pillars of proof and evidence (rational, scientific, historical, and those pertaining to conscience and sound judgment, and so on); above it are gleams of the seal of miraculousness or inimitability: it aims at happiness in both worlds; and behind it is another point of support: the truths of the Divine Revelation. To its right is the unanimous confirmation of guided reason based upon proof; and to its left are the intellectual and spiritual contentment of those with sound hearts and conscience, and their sincere attachment and submission to it. Together, these bear witness that the Quran is an extraordinary and unconquerable stronghold established upon the earth by “Heaven’s Hand,” and set their seal of admission upon it as God’s faultless, true Word. The universe’s Administrator, Who acts to manifest His Unity, protect virtue and goodness, and extirpate falsehood and slander, has given the Quran the most acceptable, high, and dominant rank of respect and success, and thereby confirmed its truth.

Also, its conveyor ( Prophet Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessing,) believed in and respected it more than anybody else. He received it through Revelation, and confirmed and preached its decrees and commands with the utmost conviction and without exhibiting any deception or error to those seeking to discredit him. Despite being unlettered, he relayed the revealed news about the past and future, and about the universe’s creation and operation, without hesitation. His own sayings (the Hadith) do not resemble the Quran and, in certain respects, are inferior to it. All of this proves that the Quran is the true, heavenly, and blessed Word of that person’s All-Merciful Creator.

Most of the Quran’s followers, about one fifth of humanity, have always had an enthusiastic and religious devotion to it. They have listened to it lovingly and adored its truth. Also, as testified to by numerous observations, signs, and events, angels, believing jinn, and other spirit beings gather around it during its recitation, just as moths are drawn to a flame. This also confirms that the Quran is accepted by almost all beings in the universe and is of the highest rank.

Also all people, from the most common to the most intelligent and learned, receive what they need from its teachings. All great scholars in such Islamic sciences as jurisprudence, theology, and religious methodology have found answers to their questions within it and so based their conclusions upon it. This is another evidence that the Quran is the source of truths, the mine of all true knowledge.

Furthermore, those unbelieving Arabs, considered the most advanced in literature, failed to match the Quran’s eloquence, which is only one of its many major aspects of miraculousness, and could not produce even their own sura. Other geniuses of learning and eloquence who sought fame by trying to surpass its eloquence have been compelled to abandon this quest. This clearly shows that the miraculous Quran is not the result of human endeavor.

When judging a word’s value, sublimity, and eloquence, one must ask: “Who has spoken it? To whom has it been spoken? Why has it been spoken?” When considered in this light, once again the Quran is shown to have no equal, for it is the Word of the Lord of all beings and the Speech of the universe’s Creator. It bears no signs to suggest that it is a fabricated book of imitation falsely attributed to God.

God revealed the Quran to his chosen representative of all creatures, His most famous and renowned addressee. The extent and strength of the Prophet’s faith embraced the comprehensive Religion of Islam and caused him to rise to the rank of the distance of “two bows’ length” and be honored with the direct address of the Eternally Besought-of-All. After that honor, he returned to convey the principles of happiness in both worlds.

The Quran explains these principles, as well as the results of and the Divine purpose for creating the universe, and expounds upon the Prophet’s most comprehensive faith, which sustains all of Islam’s truths. It shows and describes the universe as a map, a clock, or a house, and teaches about its Creator. Such a work cannot be duplicated by any person.

In addition, numerous multi-volume Quranic commentaries written by meticulous scholars of the highest intelligence and learning relate proofs of the Quran’s countless virtues, subtleties, and mysteries, and disclose and affirm its numerous predictions. Among them are the 130 treatises of the Risale-i Nur, which explain such Quranic virtues and subtleties as its allusions to modern civilization’s scientific and technical wonders and its indirect references to future Muslim victories, the story of the Companions after the Prophet, and its letters’ meaningful and mysterious design. All of this sets a seal on the Quran’s unique and miraculous nature and the Word of the Knower of the Unseen, which is the Unseen World’s tongue in this visible world of corporeality.

Such virtues have allowed the Quran’s magnificent spiritual dominion and majestic sacred rule to continue, for more than fourteen centuries, to illuminate the earth, as well as time and space, and draw more people to it. These same virtues cause each of its letters to yield at least ten merits, rewards, and fruits pertaining to the eternal world; the letters of certain verses and suras to give hundreds or even thousands of merits, and, when recited on certain blessed occasions like the Night of Power and Destiny (Laylat al-Qadr) to have the light and merits of each letter multiplied by tens or hundreds. More and more people are thinking: “Based on the consensus of its lights and mysteries, and the concord of its fruits and results, this miraculous Quran proves and testifies to a single Necessarily Existent One’s Existence, Unity, Attributes, and Names in such a manner that the testimonies of innumerable believers have their sources in it.”

In a brief reference to the instruction contained within the Quran about faith and God’s Unity, we say:

There is no deity but God—the Necessarily Existent One, the One, the Single—the necessity of Whose Existence in His Oneness is proven decisively by the Quran of miraculous exposition, which is accepted and sought by angels, humanity, and jinn; whose verses are recited every minute with perfect respect by millions of people; whose sacred rule in the earth’s regions and space’s realms, and on the faces of ages and time; whose enlightened spiritual dominion has prevailed with perfect splendor over half the globe and a fifth of humanity for fourteen centuries… Likewise, with the consensus of its heavenly and sacred suras, the agreement of its luminous Divine verses, the correspondence of its mysteries and lights, the concord of its truths, and its results, it manifestly attests to and is a clear proof of this same truth.

 

Gulen, Muhammed Fethullah. “The Essentials of the Islamic Faith” The Light, Inc. 2005.