HAJJ AND ‘UMRA FROM BEGINNING TO END

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People who intend to perform Hajj must ensure that all of the money to be spent during Hajj was earned in Islamically lawful ways. Debts must be paid off, and everyone who has rights upon the intending pilgrim must be asked to suspend those rights. In addition, the intending pilgrims must seek forgiveness from those whom they have wronged and forgive any wrongs done to them. They seek God’s forgiveness, and offer two rak’ats of prayer without leaving home.

  • While journeying, they must occupy themselves with reflecting upon God’s works, reciting the Qur’an, supplicating, and avoiding sin, speaking in vain, and harming any living creature.
  • On arriving at the miqat (the place fixed for entering the state of ihram), pilgrims should shave themselves, clip their fingernails, perform ghusl or wudu’, and wear some perfume. Men don their special Hajj attire, which is also called ihram, as it is the beginning and symbol of entering the state of ihram. There is no special attire for women. Pilgrim candidates should offer a two-rak’at prayer and declare their intention (to perform Hajj, Hajj and ‘Umra together, or ‘Umra). It is recommendable to perform Hajj Tamattu’ (Hajj and Umra together, with a break in between,) for pilgrims who come from far away. If one performs Hajj Tamattu’, one makes the inten-tion for ‘Umra at the miqat. Wearing ihram and declaring the intention for Hajj or ‘Umra is an essential part of both, and neither will be correct without ihram and intention.
    As soon as they enter the state of ihram, they must utter the talbiya loudly (women do not raise their voices) and continue saying it whenever climbing a hill, descending into a valley, meeting one or more people, early in the morning, and after every prescribed prayer until one throws pebbles at the Jamrat al-‘Aqaba on the first day of ‘Iyd al-Adha.
    While in the state of ihram, pilgrims must avoid sexual intercourse and whatever leads to it, wrangling and useless bickering, marriage or joining others in marriage, wearing any sewn clothes or shoes that cover the feet above the ankles, covering their heads (men) or faces (women), wearing perfume, cutting their hair or nails, engaging in hunting game animals, or cutting trees or grass within Makka’s Sacred Precincts.
  • When entering Makka, pilgrims perform ghusl; hasten to the Sacred Mosque, and, upon reaching it, say the talbiya; ask God for forgiveness and pray to Him; call His blessings and peace on our master Muhammad, upon him be peace and blessings, and his Family and Companions; and recite words of God’s Oneness, glorification, praise, and exaltation. As soon as they see the Ka’ba, they should pray for themselves, their parents, rela-tives, and all Muslims. In addition, they must always be humble. After this, they should proceed directly to the Black Stone and kiss it quietly or touch it with their hand. If this is not possible or doing so will harm others, one may just point toward it.
  • After this, one should begin circumambulating the Ka’ba and repeating the Prophet’s supplications, upon him be peace and blessings. In the first three turns, men should uncover their right shoulder and jog slowly. In the remaining rounds, they may walk at a normal pace. It is sunna to touch the Yemeni Corner and to kiss the Black Stone in every round. After complet-ing this rite’s seven rounds, the pilgrims should go to the Station of Abraham, for God said:

Remember, again, that We made the House (the Ka’ba in Makka) a sign showing people to the truth, a resort and place of rewarding visit for them, and a center and means of safety. (As in older times,) you too (O believers), stand in prayer in the Station of Abraham. We imposed a duty on Abraham and Ishmael: Purify My House for those who go around It as an act of devotion, for those who abide in devotion, and for those who bow and prostrate (in prayer). (2.125)

There, they should pray two rak’ats of tawaf, if possible. If not, they can pray anywhere in the Mosque.

  • Then they should approach Safa to begin sa’y in compliance with God’s words:

(The hills of) Safa and Marwa are among the emblems that God has ap-pointed (to represent some aspects of Islam and the Muslim community). Hence, whoever performs Hajj to the House (of God – the Ka’ba) or does ‘Umra, there is no blame on him to run between them (and let them run after they go round the Ka’ba as an obligatory Pilgrimage rite). (2:158)

They should climb Safa, look toward the Ka’ba, and supplicate using one of the Messenger’s supplications. After this, they should climb down and start walking toward Marwa as the first of seven rounds between the two hills, while remembering God and supplicating.On approaching one of the two green markers, pilgrims should jog to the second green marker and, after passing it, resume one’s normal walking speed toward Marwa. Upon reaching Marwa, one should climb it, turn to-ward the Ka’ba, and supplicate and glorify God. This marks one complete round. They should perform the remaining six rounds in the same manner, thereby completing all seven rounds.

  • If pilgrims are performing Hajj Tamattu‘, they should shave their head or cut their hair short, for this ends all ihram-related restrictions. After this, all things that were forbidden are allowed, including sexual intercourse with one’s spouse. Those who intend to perform Hajj Ifrad (Hajj only) or Hajj Qiran (Hajj and ‘Umra together without a break) must continue in the state of ihram.
  • On Dhu’l-Hijja 8, those intending to perform Hajj Tamattu’ must resume ihram, make the intention to perform Hajj from their residences, proceed to Mina with those who have remained in ihram, and spend the night there.
  • At sunrise on Dhu’l-Hijja 9, the pilgrims leave for ‘Arafat. Staying at ‘Arafat begins only after the sun has passed its zenith. During this time, they should stand by its rocks (Jabal al-Rahma) or as close as possible, be-cause this is where the Prophet used to stand. Staying at ‘Arafat is the Hajj’s principal rite. During it, they should face the qibla, glorify and re-member God, and supplicate as much as possible until nightfall.
  • After nightfall, the pilgrims must leave for Muzdalifa. Upon arriving there, they must offer the maghrib (evening) and ‘isha’ (night) prayers, combining them after an imam, and spend the night there.
  • At dawn, the pilgrims stand by al-Mash’ar al-Haram, and perform waqfa there. That is, they must stay there for some time and remember and glorify God until it is almost sunrise, as God declares:

When you press on in multitude from ‘Arafat (after you have stayed there for some time,) mention God at Mash’ar al-Haram (in Muzdalifa). Men-tion Him, conscious of how He has guided you, for formerly you were surely of those astray. (In vainglory, do not choose to remain in Muz-dalifa without climbing ‘Arafat and staying there for some time. Instead,) press on in multitude from where all the (other) people press on, and im-plore God for forgiveness (for your opposition until now and the errors you have done during the Pilgrimage). God is All-Forgiving, All-Compassionate (especially toward His believing servants). (2:198-99)

  • Before sunrise, they should return to Mina after collecting pebbles at Muzdalifa. After sunrise, the pilgrims must throw seven pebbles at Jamrat al-‘Aqaba. Then they offer their sacrifice, have their hair cut, remove their ihram, and lead their normal life – with the exception of having sexual intercourse with their spouse.
  • Then they go to Makka to perform the obligatory tawaf of visiting, an essential part of Hajj. Performing this tawaf on the first day of ‘Iyd al-Adha is recommended, but one can perform it during the following two days. Af-ter this tawaf, sexual intercourse with one’s spouse becomes permissible. If the pilgrims are performing Hajj Tamattu’, they must perform a sa’y after this tawaf. Those who are performing Hajj Qiran or Ifrad do not have to make this second sa’y if they had performed the Arrival Tawaf and sa’y upon their arrival in Makka
  • The pilgrims must now return to Mina and spend the 3 days of ‘Iyd al-Adha there. After midday on the second and third day (Dhu’l-Hijja 11 and 12), they throw seven pebbles at each of three Jamras, beginning with Jamrat al-Ula and then Jamrat al-Wusta and Jamrat al-‘Aqaba. They exalt God at each throwing and, after finishing their throwing at the first two Jamras, pray for themselves, their parents and relatives, and for all Muslims. If they want to stay in Mina on the fourth day of ‘Iyd al-Adha, they throw pebbles at the Jamras before noon.
  • After returning to Makka, those pilgrims who will be returning to their native lands must perform the Farewell Tawaf. Afterwards, they should go to the Zamzam well and drink as much of its water as possible. Then they go to al-Multazim, rub their face and chest against it, hold the curtain covering the Ka’ba, pray, and supplicate.